Biology - Table of Contents

Biology experiences should begin in primary with caring for plants and some experimentation. It is an environmental thing, rather than an explicit area of the classroom.

If this experience is missed, it is OK to pick up in elementary, just consider some of the environmental factors from the primary list below.

PRIMARY - Keys of the World:

Exercises of Practical Life

Care of Self
How to Wash Hands
Add outdoor care of self - when to wash hands and the like

Care of the Environment
How to Care for Plants
How to Dust Leaves
Raise herbs
Gardening – inside and out
How to Arrange Flowers
How to Make Lemon Water
How to Wash Fruits and Vegetables
How to Peel & Cut Fruits and Vegetables
How to Compost
How to Recycle

Grace and Courtesy
Introduction to Grace and Courtesy
     Grace and Courtesy for the Outdoors
     Grace and Courtesy living creatures inside

Control of Movement
Walking on the Line
     Find lines outside
The Silence Activity
     Do it outside; be like plants and animals

Visual Art
Extensions of the work: Take art outside; incorporate plants and animals into art experiences, both inside and outside


Leaf Cabinet
Leaf Cards

Sensorial Aspects of the World (including plants and animals in the extensions)

Sensitizing Fingers


Spoken: Vocabulary Enrichment
Naming Objects in the Environment – including plants and animals
Collecting Classified Objects – including items used to care for certain animals or plants
Language of the Sensorial Materials – given orally now, written form later (leaf shapes, leaves in your local area, types of trees, etc, etc, etc)
Three Period Lesson
Classified Cards - Social
Related Objects Game - Presentations A & B
Description/Definition Game
Stories – Biological Classifications
    The Story of Living and Non-Living Matter
    The Story of Plants and Animals
    The Story of the Five Classes of Vertebrates
Sorting Game – Biology Classifications
Nomenclature Cards – Scientific
Life Cycles
Oral Language Games

Spoken: Language Development – all of these can and should include biological experiences
Reading and Books in the Library
Conversation – More than one person
Question Game
Cultural Folders
Extension: fictional story telling
Land and Water Form Folders
Land and Water Form Outline Maps
Biome Folders
Art Folders
My State

Metal Insets (12 Stages) – introduce tracing the leaf cabinet insets

Reading Classification
Presentation I – Classifying the Environment
Presentation II – Cards with Labels
A. Social
B. Scientific
C1. Biology Classifications: Living and Non-Living
C2: Biology Classifications: Plant and Animal
C3: Biology Classifications: Five Classes of Vertebrates
Extension: Mix and sort - work up to 5 sets
Presentation III – Definition Stages

Children can also create posters or cards of the leaf cabinet; the parts of the animal puzzles and more.

Word Study
Compound Words
Animal Collectives
Animals and Their Young
Animal Sounds
Animal Homes
Animal Families

Language Extension
Who Am I?
Plant Study
Plant Experiments

You could also have parts of the animals or parts of the plants puzzles. We want them to have real experiences first (caring for animals; the plant study above) before introducing the puzzles, if at all possible. In practical use, the puzzles seem to lead to a better understanding of the real creature, developing a higher appreciation and enjoyment; rather than serving as a review alone. 

ELEMENTARY - Keys of the World:

Introduction to Biology
Use of the Microscope
1.  Botany
a.  The Plant
Basic Needs of the Plant
How Plants Grow Toward the Light
Plants Need Minerals

b.   The Leaf
Function of the Leaf
Parts of the Leaf
Varieties of the Leaf
Simple Classification of Leaves
Varieties of Leaves Depending upon their Functions
Follow-Ups to Studies on the Leaf

c.    The Root
Function of the Root
Parts of the Root
Cooperation of Leaves and Roots
Other Functions of the Root
Two Main Types of Roots
Other Sensitivities of the Root
Varieties of Roots
Follow-Ups to Studies on the Root

d.  The Stem
Function of the Stem
Kinds of Stems
Parts of the Woody Stem
Kinds of Tubes in the Woody Stem
How Water is Moved through the Stem
Varieties of Stems
Follow-Ups to Studies on the Stem

e.    The Flower
Function of the Flower
Parts of the Flower
Varieties of Flowers
Position of the Ovary
Specialization of Flowers to Ensure Pollination
Follow-Ups to Studies on the Flower
f.     The Fruit
Function of the Fruit
Kinds of Fruits
Parts of a Succulent Fruit
Kinds of Succulent Fruits
Another way to look at Fruits based on their Flowers
Kinds of Dry Fruits
Follow-Ups to Studies on the Fruit

g.   The Seed
Function of the Seed
Parts of the Seed
Kinds of Seeds
Seed Dispersal
Follow-Ups to Studies on the Seed

         Botany Command Cards
         Botany Nomenclature

2. Zoology
        Introduction to Zoology
        Story Material
        Activities Preparatory to Body Function Material
        Dissection of Animals
        Body Function Material

3. Classification
                Introduction to Classification
a.  Kingdom Vegetalia
Material Description
Classification of Kingdom Vegetalia:  First Method
Classification of Kingdom Vegetalia:  Second Method
Continuation of Presentation of Folders to the Family Level
Genera Level
Book Work
Geneaology of a Plant
Tree of Classification
b.   Kingdom Animalia
Material Description
Classification of Kingdom Animalia
Geneaology of an Animal
Tree of Classification

4. Ecology
        Introduction to Ecology
        Chart of Interdependencies

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